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Es real, dado que tiene la mayor capacidad para transmitirse entre las variantes que se conocen. Tal como el Ministerio de Salud ha definido en sus lineamientos, las EPS y todas las entidades que responden por la salud de los colombianos deben hacer las pruebas no solo a los casos positivos, sino a todos sus contactos y casos sospechosos. Lleno de matices, con enormes retos, al lado de un equipo grandioso que conforma el INS, del cual todos los colombianos deben estar orgullosos.


The idea of general financial benefit that oil exports would bring to the country is not considered or analyzed by participants. The argumentation of socio-scientific issues is amongst the newest developments in argumentation.

Fostering model-based school scientific argumentation among prospective science teachers.

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This framework assumes the existence of specific representations of the topic under discussion, that guide or model its understanding. This study has several implications for development and education. We intended to identify the relation between argumentative schemas displayed by Colombian students when they discuss a socio-scientific issue and its underlying models. The variables that models are comprised of an increase in complexity, which is related to variable control. Given the diversity of mental schemas identified by Walton, it is remarkable that only eleven of them were identified here.

For students, exploration and exploitation of oil would be a sort of treason to the agreements made with native communities.

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This paper addresses the argumentative speech of Colombian secondary school students when discussing a socio-scientific issue. Studies on argumentative discourses and model-based reasoning are scarce; findings suggest that most students do not express uncertainty in the explanations or justifications they give for their models.

From Fowler, Zeidler and Sadlersocio-scientific argumentation involves the skill to negotiate and make decisions related to social issues that, to Modelos hombres colombianos wholly understood, require using scientific and moral concepts. Recent literature about this same hypothesis shows that this research topic also facilitates the combination of collective negotiation processes and iterative, external, individual representations of a problem Pennington et al. These models allow for a global understanding of the situation and a set of actions leading to the proposed goal.

This report shows how students can model the situation under discussion, seeking an appropriate background to present arguments about situations that impact particular human groups in real contexts. US-China Education Review, 8 5 Authenticity and the relevance of discourse and figured worlds in secondary students' discussions of socioscientific issues. The analysis of socio-scientific issues from a model-based perspective involves two additional conceptual axes: argumentation, and model-based reasoning theory.

Then, a group stage proceeded where models were compared to determine their potential ability to group information, therefore creating explanatory models with better heuristic strength. When participants discuss socio-scientific issues, they seem to need to set forth specific solutions based on the practical knowledge they have of their social context.

Cognition, Argumentation in science education: a model-based framework. The word models has different uses for Williams and Clementbut in the context of this study, a model is, in a broad sense, a simplified representation of a system, which focuses on specific aspects of the said system. This is something that has already been suggested from the standpoint of pedagogy Develaki, : to foster the mediating role of models for the application of theories to the real world, contributing to the development of new theoretical conceptions in students of different educational levels.

By analyzing their discursive performance, we attempt to point out the different linguistic resources these students use when analyzing a real situation that affects specific populations. As such, the discussion on the exploitation of oil resources evokes particular ways of discussion, that in turn elicit resources about scientific reasoning.

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Argumentation is a discursive activity which holds reasoning; it is, therefore, a cognitive and epistemic activity linked to demonstration, which is developed in more formal languages. All answers were transcribed in their entirety and the corpus was then analyzed in stages.

In order to succeed in elaborating models, students must not only be able to create a model, but also to apply them to problem-solving or prediction, evaluating their efficacy and modifying steps if needed. This research is showing the election of an argumentative schema as an inferential achievement of the participants, and it is deemed needed as part of a problem-solving situation since the inferential structure of these schemas has a close relationship with the scientific domain that circumscribes the decision and the model.

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Keywords: Socioscientific issues, socioscientific argumentation, model-based reasoning, argumentation schemes, student beliefs. At the higher grades, students demand that the administrative autonomy of indigenous communities, as ordered by Colombian law, be upheld.

For them, the discussion around a model or the creation of one promotes the implementation of a set of specific cognitive strategies, directed towards promoting the discourse and fostering conceptual understanding. Examining the time course assumption of dual process theory. Moreover, the use of socio-scientific issues seems adequate to engage students in motivating situations that let them use knowledge and discursive processes belonging to science to find socially agreed-upon solutions. Model-based reasoning validates, inferentially, both the decisions that need to be made, and the ways those decisions should be justified and defended, under the same mental process.

The identified mental models make it possible to glimpse the understanding students have about the problem under discussion, since they contain Modelos hombres colombianos about mining, possible consequences on the environment, and about the native communities inhabiting the affected regions. Therefore, analyzing how decisions are justified requires identifying the models that underlie argumentative discourse. Current socio-scientific issues comprise, amongst others, biotechnology and the environment, genetic engineering, cloning, local pollution issues, and global climate change.

The coefficients for the eleven identified models were between 0. Table 1 shows the composition of the sample. Develaki points out that model-based reasoning, in this perspective, is a cognitive activity within scientific reasoning; to Develaki, scientific reasoning is a continuous, multidimensional activity that comprises a of specific reasoning strategies, as well as specific types of arguments that scientists have developed to justify the creation of scientific knowledge and to confirm its validity.

Abstract: The primary objective of this article is to identify the mental models that represent a social-scientific problematic specific to high-school Colombian students. The creation and use of models can be analyzed in terms of four different tasks: construction, usage, assessment, and review Schwarz et al. The students build their arguments in two different ways.

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Argumentation is a discursive process that attempts to solve or prevent a difference in opinion, highlighting the acceptability of a point of view that is doubted van Eemeren, et al. Influential dual process models of human thinking posit that reasoners typically produce a fast, intuitive heuristic i.

The argumentation is defined as a rational activity which tries to provide a good reason that will make someone admit a given conclusion Plantin, ; this is done using language, and the activity is directed towards an interlocutor.

Regarding development, it is clear that, as development progresses, the of arguments and mental models, and the variety of argumentation schemas, increase ificantly. Argumentation et Analyse du Discours [En ligne], 20, Bago, B. Fast logic? Advocates of using socio-scientific issues, such as Klosterman and Sadlerhave stated that contextualizing the learning of social and natural sciences in the real world, fosters scientific discourse and helps create a well-informed mass of citizens that can actively participate in the solution of societal problems.

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We selected a non-probabilistic, convenience sample in a single school. Most students openly reject approving the project; we found a predominant trend in their reasoning from considering the issue from an economic standpoint lower educational levels to discussing exploitation as an activity that goes against consolidation and preservation of indigenous Colombian culture higher educational levels. Walton grouped these eleven schemas into the practical and causal reasoningwhich highlights the use of schemas related to scientific reasoning in STEM education.

Arguments would be directed towards sharing and justifying the decisions, which would be supported by the underlying mental model. These research are valuable since they provide an understanding on how science instruction can drift away from a traditional, teacher-centric approach towards a student-centric Modelos hombres colombianos that regards them as active participants of their own learning. In the second phase, the PI and the research assistants analyzed the interviews in groups in order to identify the types of arguments used by participants.

This study was carried out with a cuasi-experimental de. In this paper, the goals are to analyze the argumentative schemas implemented by Colombian secondary school students when discussing socio-scientific issues, to identify the models that represent the proposed socio-scientific issue, and to determine their relationship. From the argumentative point of view, a total of arguments were extracted.

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No evidence was found of metacognitive monitoring in their reasoning to discuss the pertinence of the sources of information they base their knowledge on. We document the ability students have to argument from higher-order reasoning and the opportunity that teachers have to engage their students in productive and socially and scientifically relevant discussions by using social-scientific issues.

The hypothesis guiding this report is that reflecting on socio-scientific issues might be framed inside model-based reasoning, since these models, given their possibilities, potential and restrictions, could promote the use of certain argumentative schemas, and restrict the use of others. Gilbert proposes that models support explanation and understanding by simulating the structure and behavior of specific systems. Perspectives disciplinaires. In this study, we found the same strategies, although with a subtle difference in the usage of pronominals, since the participants of our study attempted to feel empathy towards communities affected by the mining project, which would make the person stating the argument understand the situation from an experiential Modelos hombres colombianos of view.

Decisions in a problem-solving situation are made in a dual-space: before prediction of the result and after the decision analysis of the real of the prediction ; hence, decision-making involves considering multiple scenarios pre and post Meyer, Models organize thought and function as tools for communication, since they allow individuals to create visible constructions of implicit constructs, whilst helping participants in the process of modeling, and understanding Modelos hombres colombianos object of analysis Sorensen, et al.

The arguments were classified in 11 specific argumentative schemas according to Walton and Macagno — they are presented in Table 3. This is followed by the analysis of the argumentative schemes that these students may use to justify such models.

We conducted an analysis of variance ANOVA and confirmed ificant differences in argument averages according to educational level F Figure 1 Arguments by educational level. In our research, it is noteworthy, from a developmental point of view, that the diversity of mental models increases with age, along with the of variables in each model. Universitas Psychologicavol. These solutions are framed within and restricted by, the variables that affect the issue under review.

These definitions focus on the qualitative aspects of comprehension since they emphasize getting students to create mental representations of the phenomena that can occur in a complex system social or physical. However, their statements have different degrees of validity, because they can go from very personal beliefs to data and facts. Table 2 Model, average, standard deviation, Kappa coefficient and model definition. As such, this type of task requires the problem-solver to create a mental model to integrate the variables that will explain the phenomenon under study, whilst implementing several argumentative schemas at the same time.

Teaching and Teacher Education, 65 Amossy, R. Paris: Armand Colin.

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Table 3 Argumentative schemes, averages, standard deviations, Kappa coefficients and schema definition. As such, when the knowledge domain containing the phenomenon under discussion is identified, explicitly or implicitly, there would be a need to adapt discourse to this domain to reach validity and authenticity through the increase in its social and individual importance.

With this representation, one can have an idea of plausible actions when faced with the dilemma of extracting oil and export it for economic gain, but also having a negative impact on the Modelos hombres colombianos and the native communities settled in the regions where oil extraction takes place. A specially crafted text was given to participants.

The descriptives for arguments by participant and educational level Figure 1 were as follows: 2. The educational and discursive usefulness of socio-scientific argumentation is fundamental. Analyzing the foundations of these decisions in detail can provide an idea of how these young or future citizens analyze Colombian issues and how they come up with solutions. Table 1 Sample composition. The qualitative analysis showed the presence of 11 models for thinking about the given social-scientific problematic and a limited range of argumentation schemes 11 ; the quantitative analysis through ANOVAs variance analysis showed ificant differences regarding the of arguments per grade and the mental model.

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